Mukhopadhyay, K. and D. Chakraborty (2002)

Environmental Impacts of Trade Liberalisation in India, Working Paper No 8, DSA Centre for Regional Economic Studies (Kolkata, Jadavpur University).


The present paper aims at contributing to environment trade debate by evaluating the impacts of international trade on emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the Indian economy during 90s using Input-Output techniques. The paper has constructed an index of pollution terms of trade . Using the Input-Output table of 1991-92 and 1996-97 of India we have computed pollution terms of trade for the content of CO2 ,SO2 and NOx. Results show that the indices are below 100 indicating that India produces goods that are more environment friendly than goods it imports thus indicating a large inflow of pollution embodied in trade. The paper has also offered explanations for these results which challenge the pollution haven hypothesis.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

Dams and Development,Everymen’s Science, VOL. XXXVII No.2, July-Sept., 2002.pp75-85.


The importance of a water-scarce future is fully recognized in all countries of the world. With nearly half of the globe, especially in North Africa, Middle East and South Asia, facing acute water crisis, water is increasingly being associated with scarcity, instead of security. In several areas, water demands are fast approaching the natural limits of availability of this resource. As a result of the increased pressure from both consumption pattern and population, future water security in many countries stands threatened. While food security for the poor population would mean the use of quite a large amount of water in irrigation, economic growth through industrialization would also put a large demand on water resources in both the quantitative and qualitative terms. In terms of total annual precipitation received per unit land surface, India stands much above the global average. However, the picture of water availability on per capita basis has become increasingly bleak for this country. It is undoubtedly true that large parts of the country are already facing severe water stress and unless strategies for augmenting supply are made in advance, water conflicts are bound to merge. In this background, a regional policy dialogue was organised to deliberate on the important issue of relevance of dam in sustainable water resource development of India. This paper presents the rationale of this dialogue, deliberations made and the recommendations that were presented by various stakeholders.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

Dams and Development-Report on a Policy Dialogue, Economic and Political Weekly, October 5, 2002.pp 37(4):4108-4112.


Water has always been an essential element for survival. The policy dialogue on dams and development principally aimed at opening up the question of how decisions on dams, especially large dams, can be arrived at through an open, professional and innovative exchange among the diverse stakeholders and viewpoints. This also aimed to address the social and environmental debate concerning large water projects. This paper presents the rationale of this dialogue, deliberations made and the recommendations that were presented by various stakeholders.

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2003)

'Ecology and Economics in Sustainable Water Resource Development in India' in Proceedings of the Second Biennial Conference of the Indian Society for Ecological Economics (New Delhi, Concept Publishers) forthcoming.


The rapid growth in the global requirements of water urgently needs to generate better knowledge on the ecology of water resources. In the global policy rostrums, vetted interests in issues related to water security also invoked the necessity to understand the economics of this natural resource, which made water an important element of ecological-economic research. Featuring post-independence growth in population and economy in India and the inherent challenges in water resource development facing the country, the paper configures the need to explore the possible roles that ecology and economics harmoniously play, in fostering better management of water resources. Given the quantitative availability of water in India and the official estimates of sectoral water requirements, the paper mirrors the weaknesses inveterate in the existing disciplinary framework of water resource development. To meet sustainable and equitable management ideals, a number of useful and holistic policies have been identified in this context, promoting collaborative interdisciplinary research and dialogue amongst ecologists and economists. This may help expedite a much-needed paradigm shift in the perception of managing the country’s precious water resources.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

On Environment, Dams & Development, Environ, VOL VIII, No 3, 2002.pp 69-72.


In the background of fast emerging eco-hydrological approaches to water resource management and a need for an exchange among the diverse viewpoints, a policy dialogue on Dams and Development was organised. In the policy dialogue it was deliberated that whatever the official stand, the need for a clearer set of guidelines and criteria for decisions on dams isneeded. This paper reflects on the various deliberations that were made in the dialogue and the recommendations that were provided towards effective dam building in India.

Bandyopadhyay, J (2002)

'Investing in the Mountains: Setting the priorities in the Context of the Mountains in Asia' Proceedings of the Asia High Summit (Kathmandu, ICIMOD) May.

Bandyopadhyay, J (1998)

Fresh Water For India’s Children And Nature –Learning From Local Level Approaches, UNICEF & WWF, New Delhi, Pages 82, April. (Report) (With Ashok Nigam, Biksham Gujja, Rupert Talbot).

Mukhopadhyay,K & M. Mandal (2003)

Impact Assessment of Biomass Gasification Based Power Plant in Sunderbans: A Case Study, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Conference on Energy Technology Towards a Clean Environment,12-14 February 2003, Phuket, Thailand.


The energy requirement in India is steadily increasing and this requirement is met both by commercial and renewable energy sources. The Indian power sector is characterized by shortage and supply constraints. There are a number of constraints to supply power to remote rural areas such as small human settlements, geographically dispersed villages, seasonally of loads and grid is impossible to reach .In the absence of adequate network rural households largely depend on kerosene for lighting. India being a tropical country, renewable energy is seen as an effective option for ensuring access to modern energy services. Besides, conventional energy sources are environmentally hazardous and also scarce as well. Therefore, renewable energy like wind, solar hydro and biomass offer the developing nations the opportunity for sustainable growth by increasing the energy supplies in a self reliant manner since they are environmentally less destructive. When biomass is used to produce power, the CO2 is released at the power plant is recycled back into the regrowth of the new biomass. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the socio economic impact of the biomass gasification based power plant in Chottomollakhali island of Sunderban set up by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Authority (WBREDA) under the auspices of the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)(Govt. of India). Methodology of the study is completely based on Cost Benefit Approach and willingness to pay based on field survey data. The findings of the study indicate that BGBPP has made a very positive impact on the life of the villagers of Chottomollakhali Island.

Bandyopadhyay,S & K. Mukhopadhyay (2003)

Economic Analysis of Environmental Problems in Textile Dyeing Units: A Case Study of Ranaghat, West Bengal, International journal of environment and pollution, United Kingdom, Vol 19,no 6 (forthcoming)


The dye and dye intermediaries industry is an important segment of the chemical industry that provides inputs to a large number of industries. Currently the Indian dyestuff industry is in the midst of major restructuring and consolidation phase with, the shift in emphasis on product innovation, rebuilding and environmental friendliness and also increasingly moving towards greater customer orientation. Given the dynamic nature of the dyestuff industry in India and its tremendous potential, this study aims to conduct an economic analysis of the industry, with specific reference to its inherent environmental problems. The scope of the study has been limited to some units in Ranaghat, a town in the Nadia district of West Bengal. The potential environmental problems and the health hazards arising as results of dyes and dye production have been focused here. The study also estimated the negative impact on the water quality of its adjoining river, followed by some suggestions on ways of handling the pollution problem. Finally the study suggests some policies for consideration.

Mukhopadhyay K (2001)

An Empirical Analysis of the Sources of CO 2 Emission Changes in India, Asian Journal of Energy Environment. Vol.2 Issue 3-4,2001, pp 231-269


Global climate change has become one of the most important issues of recent times. The CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere from human activities. The present paper concentrates on the CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion only. It explores the emissions of CO2 in India during 1973-1974 to 1996-1997. Sources of changes in emissions between 1973-1974 to 1996-1997 with three sub-periods were also investigated using input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis. Five forces which have been identified as responsible for changes in emissions are: i) variation of industrial added values; ii) changes in CO 2 intensity of various industries; iii) changes in technical coefficient; iv) changes in final demand of various industries and v) total joint effects. Results indicate that the primary factors for the increase of CO 2 emissions are changes in the rate of added value and changes in final demand throughout the period. On the other hand, the effects of CO 2 intensity are observed as a reducing factor. The partial reducing effect is also observed in case of the rate of technical coefficient in the reform period. Overall the above two effects have reduced emissions considerably. The paper suggests energy conservation, interfuel substitution and clean energy technology as policy options.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002)

Climate change, environmental pollutions and prospect of sustainable development, Vidyasagar University, Journal of Economics, volviii, 2002 pp 23-44


Global climate change has primarily occurred due to additional stress on ecological and socio economic systems that are already facing tremendous pressure due to sheer increase of world population, energy consumption and industrial activity. The last two centuries have witnessed the development of the green house problem, which threatens to change climate in an unprecedented manner. Currently India is also facing global warming threats, that could not only result in natural disasters and untold misery for its citizens in the years to come, but also compromise our future economic growth. The paper briefs the above climate changes issues and also presents the India specific impact of climate change. Information is also provided about the climate negotiations and UNFCC and its development. Finally it estimates Industrial Co2 emissions in India during 90's and suggests some policy options.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002)

A structural decomposition analysis of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion in India, International journal of environment and pollution, vol 18,no 5,2002, pp231-269.


During the last decade there has been Worldwide concern with global climate change, which has been induced by green house gases owing to use of fossil fuels. The CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Realizing the need to control and regulate emissions of pollutants the objective of the present study estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1991-92 and 1996-97. Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to determine their sources of change ..It also provide a set of alternative scenarios for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. The sources of changes in the amount of CO2 SO2 and NOX emissions are categorized into four factors: the eco-efficiency, the structure of production, the structure of demand and the volume of demand. Results indicate that the electricity sector contributes more towards direct, as well as indirect, emission coefficients. The petroleum product sector also contributes more in this respect. The dominant role is played by the structure of demand and the volume of demand.

Mukhopadhyay, K (2003)

Climate Change: An Indian Perspective, Indian Journal of Economics, Issue No: 330, January , pp 305-330.


Problem of climate change and related issues are a matter of concern for all especially for the scientists and social scientists of the world. The paper will concern with this. It is observed that the developed countries are primarily responsible for Global Warming .The paper presents a brief overview of available evidence on impact of climate change on temperature, monsoon, water resources, human health, agriculture, forestry and coastal zone of India. It also discusses some protocols, which have been used so far to tackle the climate change problem. Finally, the paper estimates CO2 for India using Input-Output technique for the year 1991-92 and 1996-97 and suggests some policy issues or some mitigation options in this respect.

Perveen, S. and M. Mandal (2003)

‘Forging the Green Link: An Indian Perspective’ Green Notes (New Delhi, ASSOCHAM) June.


We live in a different world today, where environmental issue is rapidly overshadowing all other issues; it has become more of a survival rather than a quality of life issue. Corporate leaders are recognizing this fact and hence, companies have taken significant steps in greening their operations and incorporating environmental considerations in their traditional supply chain management practices. The paper reviews the fact that for companies willing to develop a more cooperative long-term relationship with its key stakeholders, the practice of GSCM has fostered greater opportunities to work together on environmental issues. It thus identifies some of the management tools currently used in assisting the adoption of such a novel method of enhancing corporate image and increased acceptance and competitiveness in international markets. It is found that corporations, which are environmentally responsible, are also those, which are fiscally successful: the environmental bottom-line does contribute to the business bottom-line. The paper thus concludes by recommending some measures for changing the traditional management ideology and moving business onto the sustainable track.

Perveen, S. and B.Mallik (2003)

‘Battling the Water Problem’ The Telegraph, 07 August


Although *water wars* seem a distant possibility, the recent directive of the Supreme Court for interlinking 37 major rivers in India bespeaks the impending crisis. With scant information and parried technical analyses, the arguments remain limited to the surface of the problem. Although each rationale may sound plausible within its own confines, serious problems arise when the theorised gains and ad hoc estimates are judged against scientific rigour. Such supply-oriented development also ignores the potential of local level water harvesting, storage and use efficiency. The authors are thus, of the opinion that the project on interlinking of rivers should undergo a thorough and transparent professional assessment before it is considered a fait accompli.

Shylajan, C.S and G. Mythili. (2003)

‘Community Dependence on Protected Area of Forest: A Study of Valuation of Non Wood Forest Produce for a Region of India’ Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics, University of Peradenia, Peradenia, Sri Lanka forthcoming


With the increasing demand for non wood forest products for medicinal purpose and due to its high value addition scope, these products are increasingly extracted by the local communities not only for subsistence use but also to generate cash income This study explores the factors determining the dependence of local people on a protected area of forest for commercial purpose, from a case study of India. The findings go along with that of similar studies that alternative income source would greatly reduce the dependence and hence ease the conflict between local people interests and forest management authorities. This paper also attempts valuation of non-wood forest products and computes opportunity cost of prohibiting the use of forest by the local people.

Shylajan, C.S and G. Mythili (2002)

‘Non Timber Forest Produce Extraction, Community Dependence and Management of Protected Areas: A Study from Kerala, India’ Proceedings of the 7th Pacific Regional Science Conference Organisation’s International Conference on Decentralisation, Natural Resources and Regional Development, Bali, Indonesia.


Traditionally, timber has been considered as the most recognised direct benefit from forests while other non timber forest products have been labeled as ‘minor forest products’. However, forest is the source of many valuable NTFP; especially for local people, it is of major economic importance. In this case study, we have discussed in detail the institutional aspects of the management of non timber forest products in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. To study the pattern of extraction of various NTFP, we have used time series data for the period 1983-84 to 1999-2000. Socio-economic and cultural factors of the various tribal communities and existing institutional mechanism of managing NTFP have a great influence on the extent of extraction of forest products. The “tribal co-operative society” and “Federation”, which are the agencies in charge of organising the extraction activities and marketing of various NTFP, have promoted extraction of those products which fetch higher demand and price in the market. In the present marketing system by the Federation, there are many intermediaries between marketing agency and final consumer. Hence, existing institutional mechanism for collection and marketing has to be improved by eliminating middlemen so that NTFP extractors will be able to get more returns from their effort. One of the important policy implications of the study is the need to consider community and site-specific factors while designing policies for managing Protected Areas (PA).

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2002)

Population and Water Resources in India: Crucial Gaps In Knowledge for Sustainable Use in Future Proceedings of the Symposium on Population, Life Support and Human Development in India held at Centre for Development and Environment Policy, IIM Calcutta, February 2001.


Water is an indispensable necessity for the sustenance of all forms of life on Earth. The availability of this key natural resource in the acceptable quality, in adequate quantity, at the required place and at the time needed, is very important, may it be in the world’s megacities or the tiny human settlements in remote mountain areas. With a projected increase in population from 3.1 billion in 1990 to 5.8 billion in 2050 and to 6.8 billion in 2150 (Biswas, 1994:445), the pressure of population on water resources in Asia is going to increase substantially in the current century. This paper addresses the various challenges of water resource of India. It finally concludes that in making the overall strategy for sustainable water management in future, developing a new approach to education and research in water resource engineering and management is, thus, the natural starting point and it will also need a new generation of interdisciplinary water resource experts to address all the challenging tasks.

Mukhopadhyay, K and D. Chakraborty (2002)

Economic Reforms, Energy Consumption Changes and CO2 Emission in India: A Quantitative Analysis, Asia Pacific Development Journal December.


This paper advances methodologically and substantially the analysis of the changes in India's energy consumption and co2 emission during the period after reforms (made by G.O.I in mid 1991) i.e. 1991-92 to 1996-97 .We extend the energy Input-Output Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) to identify the sources of energy consumption changes during the same period. Results indicate that India's energy consumption increased by 5.7% p.a or 279.27 mtcr during 1991-92 to 1996-97. Six different forces behind these changes are observed i) technical changes) final demand structure, iii) interaction term between technical change and final demand structure, iv) changes in energy exports, v) changes in energy imports, vi) changes in energy change in stock. The most significant role as revealed from the empirical results have been played by the final demand structure, technical changes, and interaction term between final demand structure and technical changes. The CO2 emission trends revealed that the most dominating sectors are petroleum product and electricity, which are due to the direct effect of crude oil and coal respectively. So far as the intensities are concerned, electricity contributes a major part. The paper also suggests few policies for consideration.

Vidisha Mallik (2000)

‘False hopes’ The Hindustan Times, Thursday, Decemeber 21.


The article takes a critical look at the Women’s Reservation Bill, which is politically charted as a panacea to transform the condition and status of women in India. The WRB is viewed here, as a prescription for a convenient urban-elitist accommodation, where realities faced by millions of ordinary, invisible Indian women remain obscure. The article expresses the need to shift the focus from reservation to empowerment of women at grassroots level; if at all women in the country are to play stanch roles in social, economic and political forums.

Bandyopadhyay, J. (2002)

Environmentalism in India: between local and global responsibilities Seminar special issue on Environment, No. 516, August.


Environmentalism in India, like in most parts of South Asia, had started mainly as an integral part of local level activism for broad social justice. In India it has so far made a good track record of being effective in protesting against environmental destruction. There are many other ways to promote globalisation, like cultural and environmental security for all people, global access to information, protection for the important natural ecosystems etc. Assessing the above factors, author finds it necessary to address the domestic factors of unsustainable consumption and environmental destruction with the same zeal with which the same issues are addressed in relation with the North countries. This article focuses on the impact of globalisation on various environmental issues of India and finally it is concluded that in an interconnected and globalising world, the local and the global responsibilities for environmentalism identified above are like the two eyes of one individual, that complement each other to offer a more objective and accurate vision of the world.

Mukhopadhyay, K and Osmo Forssell (2002)

An Empirical Investigation Of Air Pollution From Fossil Fuel Combustion And Its Impact On Health In India During 1973-74 To 1996-97 Working Paper 20, Oulu University, Finland.


The CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. The present paper concentrates on the CO2 SO2 and NOX emission from fossil fuel combustion only. It estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1973-74, 1983-84,1991-92 and 1996-97. Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to find out their sources of changes. Five Sources which have been identified as responsible for changes in emissions are: the rate of added value, the intensity of pollution, the rate of technical coefficient, changes in final demand structure and joint effects. The main factors for these increases are the rate of added value and changes in final demand structure. On the other hand a main reducing factor is the changes in intensity. It also estimates the emissions of CO2 SO2 and NOX for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. Link between emission of pollutants and their impact on human health is also analysed. The paper also suggests some policies.

Bandyopadhyay J. (2002)

A Critical Look at the WCD Report in the Context of the Debate on Large Dams on the Himalayan Rivers, International Journal of Water Resource Development 18(1).


In the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin in South Asia, the Himalayan rivers offer a large number of sites suitable for the construction of storage dams to collect part of their very large monsoon run-off and generate a good amount of hydropower. A series of large dams proposed by the governments are facing strong opposition on social and environmental grounds. Additional water and hydropower supplies are needed badly to ensure economic development in this basin where poverty is a widespread problem. The Report of the WCD has been analysed in this paper to explore how much it can provide a new framework for decision making for these dams. It has been found that there are some important technical gaps in the WCD Report, as a result of which, it can not help in answering some crucial technical questions raised by the debate on dams on the Himalayan rivers of the GBM basin.

Bandyopadhyay J. and Mandal M (2001)

CPRs are waiting for the GIS Brigade The Common Property Resource Digest No 58


The emergence of the remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has opened up new avenues and options in the monitoring and management of CPRs at all scales. The possible use of the versatile and multidisciplinary RS/GIS technologies would be different in the case of diverse CPRs, like urban commons, air, water resources, fisheries, grazing lands, bio diversity etc. and of course the global commons. It is here that one has to address the question, how much the RS/GIS technologies can be made economically accessible and user friendly in countries like India. The task is not to underestimate the potentialities of the 'commonisation of the pixels', but to reduce the waiting period for the emergence of the brigade of barefoot experts who would be able to handle and design innovative applications of RS/GIS technologies on the CPRs.

Kakali Mukhopadhyay & Debesh Chakraborty

Economic Reforms & Energy Consumption Changes in India: A Structural Decomposition Analysis, Artha Vijnana, India ,Vol XLII,No 4,December,2000 pp 305-324


India's economic reform was initiated in mid 1991 by the Govt. of India. Some strategies for Energy Sector were adapted. This paper investigates the pattern of energy consumption changes during reform period i.e. 1991-92 to 1996-97 and various factors responsible for these changes based on Input-Output Model. Here we develop Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). Six different factors have been identified here: i) technical changes) final demand structure, iii) interaction term between technical change and final demand structure, iv) changes in energy exports, v) changes in energy imports, vi) changes in energy change in stock. Then we separate technical changes and final demand structure again, which explain the energy consumption changes. The most significant role as revealed from the empirical results have been played by the final demand structure, technical changes, and interaction term between final demand structure and technical changes.