Publications

Books:

Books

Sengupta, R. and A. K. Sinha (Eds) (2003)

Challenge of Sustainable Development: the Indian Dynamics(New Delhi, Manak)

Abstract:

The book is the product of a symposium on Population, Life Support and Human Development in India held at CDEP, IIM Calcutta, February 2001. The papers presented in the symposium by eminent scholars from all over India, centered around the issue of the carrying capacity of planet earth. This issue is especially relevant in India where population growth and levels of poverty have caused deep concern about the adequacy of resources, in terms of volume, distribution and quality. The importance of life support systems such as air, water and food are discussed. Keeping with the main trend of contemporary thinking and research, the issues of urban congestion and waste management, along with problems pertaining to adequacy of access to education and health services are also discussed. Though social in nature, they constitute equally important life support systems. The carrying capacity is a function of technology and socio-economic institutions. The papers of the book address these issues too.

Sengupta, R. and A. K. Sinha (Eds) (2002)

Proceedings of the Symposium on Population, Life Support and Human Development in Indiaheld at CDEP, IIM Calcutta, February 2001, forthcoming.

Abstract:

The papers presented in the symposium by eminent scholars from all over India, centered around the issue of the carrying capacity of planet earth. This issue is especially relevant in India where population growth and levels of poverty have caused deep concern about the adequacy of resources, in terms of volume, distribution and quality. The importance of life support systems such as air, water and food are discussed. Keeping with the main trend of contemporary thinking and research, the issues of urban congestion and waste management, along with problems pertaining to adequacy of access to education and health services are also discussed. Though social in nature, they constitute equally important life support systems. The carrying capacity is a function of technology and socio-economic institutions. The papers address these issues too.

Mukhopadhyay, K, (2002)

Energy Consumption Changes and CO2 Emissions in India(New Delhi, Allied Publishers)

Abstract:

The book addresses the issue of energy and environment in India. It is an exhaustive treatment of energy consumption changes and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion in India during pre oil crisis to economic reform period (1968-69 to 1996-97). The book has also identified the sources of energy consumption changes using Input-Output Structural Decomposition Analysis. Further, the work estimates and discusses CO2 emissions and also forecasts energy consumption and CO2 emissions during Tenth Five Year Plan. Policies are suggested for efficient utilization of energy and mitigation of CO2 emissions.

Sengupta, R. (2000)

Ecology and Economics (New Delhi, Oxford University Press)

Abstract:

The two-way linkage between nature and economy through resource flows and wastes has an important bearing on the enquiry into the well being of the society. This book is a comprehensive study of the ecological systems, and offers a new dimension to the widely studied interface of ecology and economics. It covers a wide range of issues, including the conflicting paradigms of ecology and economics, bio-geo-chemical cycles, role of nature as source and sink, and population ecology. The author enriches his analysis with examples and case studies from the Indian context. He also discusses the role of technology and human values in the sustainability of the environment. For students, researchers, scholars, and the general readers interested in ecological economics, this book will provide deep insights on how the ecological system works in interaction with the human economic activities, with varying directions of causality.

Papers

Papers

Mukhopadhyay, K. and D. Chakraborty (2002)

Environmental Impacts of Trade Liberalisation in India, Working Paper No 8, DSA Centre for Regional Economic Studies (Kolkata, Jadavpur University).

Abstract:

The present paper aims at contributing to environment trade debate by evaluating the impacts of international trade on emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the Indian economy during 90s using Input-Output techniques. The paper has constructed an index of pollution terms of trade . Using the Input-Output table of 1991-92 and 1996-97 of India we have computed pollution terms of trade for the content of CO2 ,SO2 and NOx. Results show that the indices are below 100 indicating that India produces goods that are more environment friendly than goods it imports thus indicating a large inflow of pollution embodied in trade. The paper has also offered explanations for these results which challenge the pollution haven hypothesis.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

Dams and Development,Everymen’s Science, VOL. XXXVII No.2, July-Sept., 2002.pp75-85.

Abstract:

The importance of a water-scarce future is fully recognized in all countries of the world. With nearly half of the globe, especially in North Africa, Middle East and South Asia, facing acute water crisis, water is increasingly being associated with scarcity, instead of security. In several areas, water demands are fast approaching the natural limits of availability of this resource. As a result of the increased pressure from both consumption pattern and population, future water security in many countries stands threatened. While food security for the poor population would mean the use of quite a large amount of water in irrigation, economic growth through industrialization would also put a large demand on water resources in both the quantitative and qualitative terms. In terms of total annual precipitation received per unit land surface, India stands much above the global average. However, the picture of water availability on per capita basis has become increasingly bleak for this country. It is undoubtedly true that large parts of the country are already facing severe water stress and unless strategies for augmenting supply are made in advance, water conflicts are bound to merge. In this background, a regional policy dialogue was organised to deliberate on the important issue of relevance of dam in sustainable water resource development of India. This paper presents the rationale of this dialogue, deliberations made and the recommendations that were presented by various stakeholders.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

Dams and Development-Report on a Policy Dialogue, Economic and Political Weekly, October 5, 2002.pp 37(4):4108-4112.

Abstract:

Water has always been an essential element for survival. The policy dialogue on dams and development principally aimed at opening up the question of how decisions on dams, especially large dams, can be arrived at through an open, professional and innovative exchange among the diverse stakeholders and viewpoints. This also aimed to address the social and environmental debate concerning large water projects. This paper presents the rationale of this dialogue, deliberations made and the recommendations that were presented by various stakeholders.

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2003)

'Ecology and Economics in Sustainable Water Resource Development in India' in Proceedings of the Second Biennial Conference of the Indian Society for Ecological Economics (New Delhi, Concept Publishers) forthcoming.

Abstract:

The rapid growth in the global requirements of water urgently needs to generate better knowledge on the ecology of water resources. In the global policy rostrums, vetted interests in issues related to water security also invoked the necessity to understand the economics of this natural resource, which made water an important element of ecological-economic research. Featuring post-independence growth in population and economy in India and the inherent challenges in water resource development facing the country, the paper configures the need to explore the possible roles that ecology and economics harmoniously play, in fostering better management of water resources. Given the quantitative availability of water in India and the official estimates of sectoral water requirements, the paper mirrors the weaknesses inveterate in the existing disciplinary framework of water resource development. To meet sustainable and equitable management ideals, a number of useful and holistic policies have been identified in this context, promoting collaborative interdisciplinary research and dialogue amongst ecologists and economists. This may help expedite a much-needed paradigm shift in the perception of managing the country’s precious water resources.

Bandyopadhyay.J, Mallik. B, Mandal. M, Perveen. S.

On Environment, Dams & Development, Environ, VOL VIII, No 3, 2002.pp 69-72.

Abstract:

In the background of fast emerging eco-hydrological approaches to water resource management and a need for an exchange among the diverse viewpoints, a policy dialogue on Dams and Development was organised. In the policy dialogue it was deliberated that whatever the official stand, the need for a clearer set of guidelines and criteria for decisions on dams isneeded. This paper reflects on the various deliberations that were made in the dialogue and the recommendations that were provided towards effective dam building in India.

Bandyopadhyay, J (2002)

'Investing in the Mountains: Setting the priorities in the Context of the Mountains in Asia' Proceedings of the Asia High Summit (Kathmandu, ICIMOD) May.

Bandyopadhyay, J (1998)

Fresh Water For India’s Children And Nature –Learning From Local Level Approaches, UNICEF & WWF, New Delhi, Pages 82, April. (Report) (With Ashok Nigam, Biksham Gujja, Rupert Talbot).

Mukhopadhyay,K & M. Mandal (2003)

Impact Assessment of Biomass Gasification Based Power Plant in Sunderbans: A Case Study, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Conference on Energy Technology Towards a Clean Environment,12-14 February 2003, Phuket, Thailand.

Abstract:

The energy requirement in India is steadily increasing and this requirement is met both by commercial and renewable energy sources. The Indian power sector is characterized by shortage and supply constraints. There are a number of constraints to supply power to remote rural areas such as small human settlements, geographically dispersed villages, seasonally of loads and grid is impossible to reach .In the absence of adequate network rural households largely depend on kerosene for lighting. India being a tropical country, renewable energy is seen as an effective option for ensuring access to modern energy services. Besides, conventional energy sources are environmentally hazardous and also scarce as well. Therefore, renewable energy like wind, solar hydro and biomass offer the developing nations the opportunity for sustainable growth by increasing the energy supplies in a self reliant manner since they are environmentally less destructive. When biomass is used to produce power, the CO2 is released at the power plant is recycled back into the regrowth of the new biomass. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the socio economic impact of the biomass gasification based power plant in Chottomollakhali island of Sunderban set up by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Authority (WBREDA) under the auspices of the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)(Govt. of India). Methodology of the study is completely based on Cost Benefit Approach and willingness to pay based on field survey data. The findings of the study indicate that BGBPP has made a very positive impact on the life of the villagers of Chottomollakhali Island.

Bandyopadhyay,S & K. Mukhopadhyay (2003)

Economic Analysis of Environmental Problems in Textile Dyeing Units: A Case Study of Ranaghat, West Bengal, International journal of environment and pollution, United Kingdom, Vol 19,no 6 (forthcoming)

Abstract:

The dye and dye intermediaries industry is an important segment of the chemical industry that provides inputs to a large number of industries. Currently the Indian dyestuff industry is in the midst of major restructuring and consolidation phase with, the shift in emphasis on product innovation, rebuilding and environmental friendliness and also increasingly moving towards greater customer orientation. Given the dynamic nature of the dyestuff industry in India and its tremendous potential, this study aims to conduct an economic analysis of the industry, with specific reference to its inherent environmental problems. The scope of the study has been limited to some units in Ranaghat, a town in the Nadia district of West Bengal. The potential environmental problems and the health hazards arising as results of dyes and dye production have been focused here. The study also estimated the negative impact on the water quality of its adjoining river, followed by some suggestions on ways of handling the pollution problem. Finally the study suggests some policies for consideration.

Mukhopadhyay K (2001)

An Empirical Analysis of the Sources of CO 2 Emission Changes in India, Asian Journal of Energy Environment. Vol.2 Issue 3-4,2001, pp 231-269

Abstract:

Global climate change has become one of the most important issues of recent times. The CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere from human activities. The present paper concentrates on the CO2 emission from fossil fuel combustion only. It explores the emissions of CO2 in India during 1973-1974 to 1996-1997. Sources of changes in emissions between 1973-1974 to 1996-1997 with three sub-periods were also investigated using input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis. Five forces which have been identified as responsible for changes in emissions are: i) variation of industrial added values; ii) changes in CO 2 intensity of various industries; iii) changes in technical coefficient; iv) changes in final demand of various industries and v) total joint effects. Results indicate that the primary factors for the increase of CO 2 emissions are changes in the rate of added value and changes in final demand throughout the period. On the other hand, the effects of CO 2 intensity are observed as a reducing factor. The partial reducing effect is also observed in case of the rate of technical coefficient in the reform period. Overall the above two effects have reduced emissions considerably. The paper suggests energy conservation, interfuel substitution and clean energy technology as policy options.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002)

Climate change, environmental pollutions and prospect of sustainable development, Vidyasagar University, Journal of Economics, volviii, 2002 pp 23-44

Abstract:

Global climate change has primarily occurred due to additional stress on ecological and socio economic systems that are already facing tremendous pressure due to sheer increase of world population, energy consumption and industrial activity. The last two centuries have witnessed the development of the green house problem, which threatens to change climate in an unprecedented manner. Currently India is also facing global warming threats, that could not only result in natural disasters and untold misery for its citizens in the years to come, but also compromise our future economic growth. The paper briefs the above climate changes issues and also presents the India specific impact of climate change. Information is also provided about the climate negotiations and UNFCC and its development. Finally it estimates Industrial Co2 emissions in India during 90's and suggests some policy options.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002)

A structural decomposition analysis of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion in India, International journal of environment and pollution, vol 18,no 5,2002, pp231-269.

Abstract:

During the last decade there has been Worldwide concern with global climate change, which has been induced by green house gases owing to use of fossil fuels. The CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. Realizing the need to control and regulate emissions of pollutants the objective of the present study estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1991-92 and 1996-97. Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to determine their sources of change ..It also provide a set of alternative scenarios for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. The sources of changes in the amount of CO2 SO2 and NOX emissions are categorized into four factors: the eco-efficiency, the structure of production, the structure of demand and the volume of demand. Results indicate that the electricity sector contributes more towards direct, as well as indirect, emission coefficients. The petroleum product sector also contributes more in this respect. The dominant role is played by the structure of demand and the volume of demand.

Mukhopadhyay, K (2003)

Climate Change: An Indian Perspective, Indian Journal of Economics, Issue No: 330, January , pp 305-330.

Abstract:

Problem of climate change and related issues are a matter of concern for all especially for the scientists and social scientists of the world. The paper will concern with this. It is observed that the developed countries are primarily responsible for Global Warming .The paper presents a brief overview of available evidence on impact of climate change on temperature, monsoon, water resources, human health, agriculture, forestry and coastal zone of India. It also discusses some protocols, which have been used so far to tackle the climate change problem. Finally, the paper estimates CO2 for India using Input-Output technique for the year 1991-92 and 1996-97 and suggests some policy issues or some mitigation options in this respect.

Perveen, S. and M. Mandal (2003)

‘Forging the Green Link: An Indian Perspective’ Green Notes (New Delhi, ASSOCHAM) June.

Abstract:

We live in a different world today, where environmental issue is rapidly overshadowing all other issues; it has become more of a survival rather than a quality of life issue. Corporate leaders are recognizing this fact and hence, companies have taken significant steps in greening their operations and incorporating environmental considerations in their traditional supply chain management practices. The paper reviews the fact that for companies willing to develop a more cooperative long-term relationship with its key stakeholders, the practice of GSCM has fostered greater opportunities to work together on environmental issues. It thus identifies some of the management tools currently used in assisting the adoption of such a novel method of enhancing corporate image and increased acceptance and competitiveness in international markets. It is found that corporations, which are environmentally responsible, are also those, which are fiscally successful: the environmental bottom-line does contribute to the business bottom-line. The paper thus concludes by recommending some measures for changing the traditional management ideology and moving business onto the sustainable track.

Perveen, S. and B.Mallik (2003)

‘Battling the Water Problem’ The Telegraph, 07 August http://www.telegraphindia.com/1030807/asp/opinion/story_2239214.asp

Abstract:

Although *water wars* seem a distant possibility, the recent directive of the Supreme Court for interlinking 37 major rivers in India bespeaks the impending crisis. With scant information and parried technical analyses, the arguments remain limited to the surface of the problem. Although each rationale may sound plausible within its own confines, serious problems arise when the theorised gains and ad hoc estimates are judged against scientific rigour. Such supply-oriented development also ignores the potential of local level water harvesting, storage and use efficiency. The authors are thus, of the opinion that the project on interlinking of rivers should undergo a thorough and transparent professional assessment before it is considered a fait accompli.

Shylajan, C.S and G. Mythili. (2003)

‘Community Dependence on Protected Area of Forest: A Study of Valuation of Non Wood Forest Produce for a Region of India’ Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics, University of Peradenia, Peradenia, Sri Lanka forthcoming

Abstract:

With the increasing demand for non wood forest products for medicinal purpose and due to its high value addition scope, these products are increasingly extracted by the local communities not only for subsistence use but also to generate cash income This study explores the factors determining the dependence of local people on a protected area of forest for commercial purpose, from a case study of India. The findings go along with that of similar studies that alternative income source would greatly reduce the dependence and hence ease the conflict between local people interests and forest management authorities. This paper also attempts valuation of non-wood forest products and computes opportunity cost of prohibiting the use of forest by the local people.

Shylajan, C.S and G. Mythili (2002)

‘Non Timber Forest Produce Extraction, Community Dependence and Management of Protected Areas: A Study from Kerala, India’ Proceedings of the 7th Pacific Regional Science Conference Organisation’s International Conference on Decentralisation, Natural Resources and Regional Development, Bali, Indonesia.

Abstract:

Traditionally, timber has been considered as the most recognised direct benefit from forests while other non timber forest products have been labeled as ‘minor forest products’. However, forest is the source of many valuable NTFP; especially for local people, it is of major economic importance. In this case study, we have discussed in detail the institutional aspects of the management of non timber forest products in Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. To study the pattern of extraction of various NTFP, we have used time series data for the period 1983-84 to 1999-2000. Socio-economic and cultural factors of the various tribal communities and existing institutional mechanism of managing NTFP have a great influence on the extent of extraction of forest products. The “tribal co-operative society” and “Federation”, which are the agencies in charge of organising the extraction activities and marketing of various NTFP, have promoted extraction of those products which fetch higher demand and price in the market. In the present marketing system by the Federation, there are many intermediaries between marketing agency and final consumer. Hence, existing institutional mechanism for collection and marketing has to be improved by eliminating middlemen so that NTFP extractors will be able to get more returns from their effort. One of the important policy implications of the study is the need to consider community and site-specific factors while designing policies for managing Protected Areas (PA).

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2002)

Population and Water Resources in India: Crucial Gaps In Knowledge for Sustainable Use in Future Proceedings of the Symposium on Population, Life Support and Human Development in India held at Centre for Development and Environment Policy, IIM Calcutta, February 2001.

Abstract:

Water is an indispensable necessity for the sustenance of all forms of life on Earth. The availability of this key natural resource in the acceptable quality, in adequate quantity, at the required place and at the time needed, is very important, may it be in the world’s megacities or the tiny human settlements in remote mountain areas. With a projected increase in population from 3.1 billion in 1990 to 5.8 billion in 2050 and to 6.8 billion in 2150 (Biswas, 1994:445), the pressure of population on water resources in Asia is going to increase substantially in the current century. This paper addresses the various challenges of water resource of India. It finally concludes that in making the overall strategy for sustainable water management in future, developing a new approach to education and research in water resource engineering and management is, thus, the natural starting point and it will also need a new generation of interdisciplinary water resource experts to address all the challenging tasks.

Mukhopadhyay, K and D. Chakraborty (2002)

Economic Reforms, Energy Consumption Changes and CO2 Emission in India: A Quantitative Analysis, Asia Pacific Development Journal December.

Abstract:

This paper advances methodologically and substantially the analysis of the changes in India's energy consumption and co2 emission during the period after reforms (made by G.O.I in mid 1991) i.e. 1991-92 to 1996-97 .We extend the energy Input-Output Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) to identify the sources of energy consumption changes during the same period. Results indicate that India's energy consumption increased by 5.7% p.a or 279.27 mtcr during 1991-92 to 1996-97. Six different forces behind these changes are observed i) technical changes) final demand structure, iii) interaction term between technical change and final demand structure, iv) changes in energy exports, v) changes in energy imports, vi) changes in energy change in stock. The most significant role as revealed from the empirical results have been played by the final demand structure, technical changes, and interaction term between final demand structure and technical changes. The CO2 emission trends revealed that the most dominating sectors are petroleum product and electricity, which are due to the direct effect of crude oil and coal respectively. So far as the intensities are concerned, electricity contributes a major part. The paper also suggests few policies for consideration.

Vidisha Mallik (2000)

‘False hopes’ The Hindustan Times, Thursday, Decemeber 21.

Abstract:

The article takes a critical look at the Women’s Reservation Bill, which is politically charted as a panacea to transform the condition and status of women in India. The WRB is viewed here, as a prescription for a convenient urban-elitist accommodation, where realities faced by millions of ordinary, invisible Indian women remain obscure. The article expresses the need to shift the focus from reservation to empowerment of women at grassroots level; if at all women in the country are to play stanch roles in social, economic and political forums.

Bandyopadhyay, J. (2002)

Environmentalism in India: between local and global responsibilities Seminar special issue on Environment, No. 516, August.

Abstract:

Environmentalism in India, like in most parts of South Asia, had started mainly as an integral part of local level activism for broad social justice. In India it has so far made a good track record of being effective in protesting against environmental destruction. There are many other ways to promote globalisation, like cultural and environmental security for all people, global access to information, protection for the important natural ecosystems etc. Assessing the above factors, author finds it necessary to address the domestic factors of unsustainable consumption and environmental destruction with the same zeal with which the same issues are addressed in relation with the North countries. This article focuses on the impact of globalisation on various environmental issues of India and finally it is concluded that in an interconnected and globalising world, the local and the global responsibilities for environmentalism identified above are like the two eyes of one individual, that complement each other to offer a more objective and accurate vision of the world.

Mukhopadhyay, K and Osmo Forssell (2002)

An Empirical Investigation Of Air Pollution From Fossil Fuel Combustion And Its Impact On Health In India During 1973-74 To 1996-97 Working Paper 20, Oulu University, Finland.

Abstract:

The CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. The present paper concentrates on the CO2 SO2 and NOX emission from fossil fuel combustion only. It estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1973-74, 1983-84,1991-92 and 1996-97. Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to find out their sources of changes. Five Sources which have been identified as responsible for changes in emissions are: the rate of added value, the intensity of pollution, the rate of technical coefficient, changes in final demand structure and joint effects. The main factors for these increases are the rate of added value and changes in final demand structure. On the other hand a main reducing factor is the changes in intensity. It also estimates the emissions of CO2 SO2 and NOX for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. Link between emission of pollutants and their impact on human health is also analysed. The paper also suggests some policies.

Bandyopadhyay J. (2002)

A Critical Look at the WCD Report in the Context of the Debate on Large Dams on the Himalayan Rivers, International Journal of Water Resource Development 18(1).

Abstract:

In the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin in South Asia, the Himalayan rivers offer a large number of sites suitable for the construction of storage dams to collect part of their very large monsoon run-off and generate a good amount of hydropower. A series of large dams proposed by the governments are facing strong opposition on social and environmental grounds. Additional water and hydropower supplies are needed badly to ensure economic development in this basin where poverty is a widespread problem. The Report of the WCD has been analysed in this paper to explore how much it can provide a new framework for decision making for these dams. It has been found that there are some important technical gaps in the WCD Report, as a result of which, it can not help in answering some crucial technical questions raised by the debate on dams on the Himalayan rivers of the GBM basin.

Bandyopadhyay J. and Mandal M (2001)

CPRs are waiting for the GIS Brigade The Common Property Resource Digest No 58

Abstract:

The emergence of the remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) has opened up new avenues and options in the monitoring and management of CPRs at all scales. The possible use of the versatile and multidisciplinary RS/GIS technologies would be different in the case of diverse CPRs, like urban commons, air, water resources, fisheries, grazing lands, bio diversity etc. and of course the global commons. It is here that one has to address the question, how much the RS/GIS technologies can be made economically accessible and user friendly in countries like India. The task is not to underestimate the potentialities of the 'commonisation of the pixels', but to reduce the waiting period for the emergence of the brigade of barefoot experts who would be able to handle and design innovative applications of RS/GIS technologies on the CPRs.

Kakali Mukhopadhyay & Debesh Chakraborty

Economic Reforms & Energy Consumption Changes in India: A Structural Decomposition Analysis, Artha Vijnana, India ,Vol XLII,No 4,December,2000 pp 305-324

Abstract:

India's economic reform was initiated in mid 1991 by the Govt. of India. Some strategies for Energy Sector were adapted. This paper investigates the pattern of energy consumption changes during reform period i.e. 1991-92 to 1996-97 and various factors responsible for these changes based on Input-Output Model. Here we develop Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). Six different factors have been identified here: i) technical changes) final demand structure, iii) interaction term between technical change and final demand structure, iv) changes in energy exports, v) changes in energy imports, vi) changes in energy change in stock. Then we separate technical changes and final demand structure again, which explain the energy consumption changes. The most significant role as revealed from the empirical results have been played by the final demand structure, technical changes, and interaction term between final demand structure and technical changes.

Online Publication(s)

Online Publication(s)

Mandal M.

Global Positioning system and It’s Application in Forestry, http://www.gisdevelopment.net/technology/gps/techgp0063.htm

Abstract:

Global positioning System (GPS) is a powerful tool providing a unique position of a specific feature. Further, integration of GIS/GPS technology is revolutionising fields of survey & mapping. This paper describes in depth GPS functioning and finally describes its application in forestry.

Shylajan, C.S and J.Bandyopadhyay (2003)

‘Creating Economic Incentives for Biodiversity Conservation: An Exigency for Sustainable Mountain Development’: In Secretariate of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2003) “ Status and Trends of, and threats to, mountain biodiversity, marine, coastal and inland water ecosystem” Abstarcts of poster presentation at the eighth meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Montreal, SCBD, Canada, 127 p (CBD Technical Series No.8) http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/cbd-ts-08.pdf

Paper Presented in Conference(s)

Paper Presented in Conference(s)

Mukhopadhyay, K. and M. Mandal (2003)

published the paper entitled ‘Impact Assessment of Biomass Gasification Based Power Plant in Sundarbans: A Case Study’ in the Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Conference on Energy Technology Towards a Clean Environment, held at Phuket, Thailand, 12-14 February.

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the socio economic impact of the biomass gasification based power plant in Chottomollakhali island of Sunderban set up by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Authority (WBREDA) under the auspices of the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES)(Govt. of India).Four villages of Chottomollakhali Island are benefited with electricity from the power plant, which serves to 225 consumers (March 2002) comprising of household, commercial and industrial sectors. Methodology of the study is completely based on Cost Benefit Approach and Willingness to pay based on field survey data.The findings of the study indicate that BGBPP has made a very positive impact on the life of the villagers of Chottomollakhali Island. This has led to increased economic activities and more profitable turnover for the commercial consumers and improves quality of life for the household sector. The consumers are now gaining in terms of lesser electric bill expenditure. All of them have showed a willingness to pay for higher price to get 24hrs of power supply. From the cost benefit analysis it has been found that the Internal Rate of Return of the Project is 21% and pay back period is 6 years. But environmental awareness is very poor among the villagers. The whole study clearly shows a change in parameters of domestic lifestyle and business activities due to the power supply by BGBPP.

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2002)

presented a paper entitled ‘Perception of Floods from an Ecohydrological Viewpoint’ at the International Workshop on Floods in South Asia, held at Dhaka, Bangladesh, 28-30 November.

Abstract:

This paper imparts a fresh new outlook towards the understanding and management of floods as a natural process. Damages incurred from floods have always received the greatest attention of planners and politicians alike. As such, modern water resource engineering singularly sought physical control measures to combat floods. The paper challenges the traditional water resource-engineering paradigm and its reductionist knowledge base on water, establishing the imperative to understand floods from the perspective of ‘Eco-hydrology’. This comprehensive, integrated and holistic view on water highlights the inevitability of the hydrological processes, encouraging human societies to learn and evolve adaptive means towards mitigating floods. The paper furnishes a detailed account on the nature and types of flooding prevalent in South Asia and attempts to analyse and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of disciplinary rigour and reductionist engineering strategies advocated and implemented for the control of floodwaters. The need for a new interdisciplinary paradigm to guide sustainable river basin development and some key elements of an emerging eco-hydrological viewpoint on floods has been identified and addressed in this study.

Perveen, S. and B.Mallik (2003)

presented a paper entitled ‘A Scientific and Economic Examination of the River Link Project’ at the Workshop on Interlinking of Rivers: Doable and Desirable? Held at Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, 23rd May.

Abstract:

Projected as an ambitious engineering response in the development of water resources, the ‘Inter-basin transfer’ proposal is all set to redraw the country’s geography. Very little objectively is yet known of the project in the public domain and scientifically it has not been able to win much credence. In spite of this, the project seems to have gained considerable bureaucratic support and political mileage. The paper reviews the total costs, including the inherent environmental costs of the project. It describes how a tunnel focus on projected benefits whilst neglecting the actual costs could play havoc with the social, economic and ecological dimensions. The study identifies that in the complete absence of any serious scientific and cost-benefit study of the river-link project, it could have the possibility of making the proposal ecologically destructive and economically perilous. The present paper is also an exercise to question the scientific credibility of the proposed project on such a macro scale when micro scale conservation methods alongwith efficient and wise use of local water harvesting methods have proved to be a success in many parts of the country.

Shylajan, C. S. (2003)

presented a project report on ‘Coastal Mangrove Ecosystem and Fishermen’s Welfare: A Study of Mangrove-Fishery Linkages in Sundarban Islands in India’at the First School on Ecological Economics at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, 27 February.

Abstract:

Coastal mangrove ecosystem has significant ecological functions. It plays a vital role in the coastal environment as a cyclone protection belt, nutrient/sediment trapping, erosion control and as breeding grounds and nursery habitats for on-site and off-shore fisheries. Mangroves supply a variety of products to the local population. However, mangrove ecosystems are extensively depleted in South Asian countries especially in Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, India etc. Depletion of mangrove ecosystem and resultant loss in fish nurseries and breeding grounds will have a significant impact on off-shore fisheries. However, the environmental goods and services that they provide are not being properly valued either due to market failure or other reasons. This is one of the major reasons of rapid depletion of coastal mangrove ecosystem or conversion to other land uses which have negative environmental impacts. This project report presentation was part of winter school programme on ecological and environmental economics (EEE) organised by the Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden and ICTP, Italy. The report emphasises need for economic valuation of local user benefits of mangrove ecosystem as a breeding ground and nursery habitat of fisheries. The report shows the importance of conducting such an empirical study for the Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world.

Bandyopadhyay, J. And S. Perveen (2002)

Emergence of and Future Steps for Sustainable Mountain Development in the Global Environmental Agenda, presented at an ‘International Conference on Mountains and Environment: Ten years after Rio’, Aosta, Italy, November 2002.

Abstract:

In the last thirty years or so, the perception of mountains has evolved from being rugged, indestructible, and remote to regions central to rapid changes due to globalisation. The paper charts the progress in the context of development in global mountains, prior to Rio Summit until the recently concluded World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) at Johannesburg. With the inclusion of a separate chapter on mountains in Agenda 21, Rio proved significant in starting a crusade to register mountains on global minds. With the humble beginning made with the formation of World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) until the declaration of year 2002 as the ‘International Year of the Mountains’ (IYM), we have achieved much, however, the shortcomings do not go unnoticed. The paper concludes by recommending the practical challenges facing the ‘operationalisation’ of sustainable development policies at the ground level and concludes by proposing various tasks on global mountains post IYM period.

Bandyopadhyay, J. And S. Perveen (2002)

Advent of Chapter 13 in Agenda 21 and the Future Directions of the Global Campaign for Sustainable Mountain Development, paper presented at the National Workshop on Sustainable Mountain Development’, G.B.Pant Institute for Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttaranchal, December 2002.

Abstract:

With the increase in the pace of globalisation in the plains, social, environmental and cultural transformations are taking place with rapid strides. In view of the great environmental, aesthetic and spiritual contribution made by the mountains, concerns for the effective changes in the mountain environments has been expressed by many in various forms and at various times. It was the collective effort of a handful of mountain professionals and academicians that a separate chapter on mountains was included in Agenda 21 at Rio Earth Summit, 1992. The paper examines the developments that have taken place to project mountains in the global discussions, starting from the early 1970s till the recently concluded World Summit on Sustainable Development. The delicate ecology and socio-economy of these complex and fragile ecosystems are largely being threatened to accommodate unjustifiable changes and the author has recommended some measures for advancing the crusade for sustainable development in such a vulnerable ecosystem as this.

Bandyopadhyay, J. (2002)

Need for a New Policy or a New Paradigm: Some Reflections on the National Water Policy 2002, paper prepared for IWMI Workshop on ‘Policy Futures for Water Resources Management in India: From Prescription and Impact Assessment to Strategic Analysis’, Hyderabad (AP),October 2002

Abstract:

Post independence, the process of human interventions in the natural hydrological cycle has accelerated due to the burgeoning population and the expanding economy. Going by the official estimates, the projected total annual requirements of water in India, would come close to the estimated total annual utilisable water resources of the country by the middle of the next century. The paper examines the recent most official policy document for water resource development in India, the ‘National Water Policy 2002’ to assess the extent to which the policy reflects a shift from the old reductionist paradigm of water, to the evolving interdisciplinary paradigm of water resource development. The author identifies some characteristic elements, indicative of the emerging interdisciplinary model and probes the efficacy of the new policy document in addressing or internalising the elements of same, fast escalating in response to the many weaknesses and gaps evident in the disciplinary approach.

Ghosh N and Bandyopadhyay J (2002)

Valuation of mountain and highland waters: an instrument for the promotion of hydro-solidarity, paper presented in International Conference of Mountains and Waters organised by Societe d'Economie Alpestre de la Haute-Savoie held at Megeve, France, 5 and 6 September 2002.

Abstract:

The conflict between the highland and the plains with the sharing of the highland waters, of late, has assumed an enhanced importance in the context of ecological disputes. While, policy makers and academicians have suggested several methods to resolve the conflict, the entry point in this analysis lies with the “beneficiaries pay” principle. Keeping with this principle, the paper initiates with the idea that one of the ways for resolving the water-related conflict between the highlands and the plains is to make the beneficiary plain pay adequately for the use of the highland water. This is where the most important question arises: what should be the amount of the payment? There have been attempts to answer this question in this analysis. The paper tries to obtain the optimal amount that the plain should pay for the attainment of social optimality. In this context, the concept of the shadow value becomes important. With static and dynamic analyses, it has been shown that the shadow value, which reflects the scarcity value of water as well, should be the amount that the plain should be paying the mountain economy, so that the total societal benefits are maximised.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002),

An Input-Output Study of the Relationship between Information Sector, Energy Use &Co2 Emission in the Indian Economy during 1973-74 To 1996-97, Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Input-Output Technique to be held at University of Quebec, Montreal, Canada Oct 10-15, 2002

Abstract:

Information technology is gradually gaining its importance since last decade. Government of India considers IT as an agent of transformation of every facet of human life, which will bring about knowledge based society in the 21st century. But the relationship between information and energy needs to be studied as the substitution of information for energy is a dominant phenomenon in economic activities of the developed countries like US is to be examined in the context of India. The present paper tries to estimate the relationship between information and energy during 1973-74 to 1996-97 for India. More specifically it tries to assess whether the substitution of information and energy is possible for India or not. The paper also provides further evidence on Maxwells’demon for a less developed country like India. Moreover, it also tries to justify the fact that less energy activities leads to less co2 emission the results indicate that the Indian economy is walking on a path of gradual informatization process but not up to the extent like US.

Mukhopadhyay K and Forsell O (2002)

An empirical investigation of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion and its impact on health in India during 1973-74 to 1996-97, Paper presented at the 14th International Conference on Input-Output Technique held at University of Quebec, Montreal, Canada Oct 10-15, 2002

Abstract:

The paper estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1973-74,1983-84,1991-92 and 1996-97 Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to find out their sources of changes. We also estimate the emissions of CO2 SO2 and NOX for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. A link between emission of pollutants and their impact on human health is also analysed. CO2 emission in India has increased from 191 mt of CO2 in 1973-74 to 767 mt of CO2 in 1996-97. The estimated SO2 emission has also rose from 9.49 mt of SO2 to 20.47 mt of SO2. In the same manner the nox has also increased from 5.69 to 21.67 mt of nox. The study categorizes the changes in the amount of CO2, SO2 and nox emissions into four factors: the pollution intensity, the rate of technical coefficient, changes in the volume of final demand structure and changes in the composition of final demand. The main factors for these changes were the volume of final demand and changes in rate of technical coefficient. The paper also reports the results from the selected surveys and statistical data from Health Statistics of India which reveal that respiratory infections like asthma and bronchitis and other respiratory diseases gradually increased due to the ntensive effect of S02, Nox and CO2.The paper has also suggested some policies.

Mukhopadhyay K (2002)

An Empirical Study Of The Sources Of Air Pollution From Fossil Fuel Combustion In India, Paper presented in Second World Congress of Environmental and Resource Economists organized by University of California, Berkeley held at Monterey, California, 24-27 June 2002

Abstract:

The CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion have been identified as the single most significant source of GHG emissions into the atmosphere. The present paper concentrates on the CO2 SO2 and NOX emission from fossil fuel combustion only. It estimates the trend of CO2 SO2 and NOX between the periods 1973-74, 1983-84,1991-92 and 1996-97. Input-output Structural Decomposition Analysis approach is used to find out their sources of changes. Five Sources which have been identified as responsible for changes in emissions are: the rate of added value, the intensity of pollution, the rate of technical coefficient, changes in final demand structure and joint effects. The main factors for these increases are the rate of added value and changes in final demand structure. On the other hand a main reducing factor is the changes in intensity. It also estimates the emissions of CO2 SO2 and NOX for the year 2001-2 and 2006-7. The paper also suggests some policies.

Mukhopadhyay K and Mandal M (2002)

Impact Assessment of Biomass Gasification Based Power Plant: A case Study from Indian Sunderbans, Paper presented in the Workshop on Energy Efficient And Environment Friendly Technologies For Rural development, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute Calcutta, September 20-22, 2002.

Abstract:

The importance of the increased use of renewable energy to meet the increasing energy demand in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner was recognized in the early seventies. One of the major goals of the ninth and tenth five-year plan is strengthening of infrastructure (energy, transport, communication, irrigation) in order to support the growth process on a sustainable basis. Threat from Green House Gasses (GHG) also has caused worldwide concern. In India electric power generation is the largest source of GHG emissions. It accounts for 48% of carbon emitted. These concerns point towards more rational energy use strategies. The renewable and recycling process makes biomass possible to generate power without adding to air emissions. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the socio economic impact of the bio mass gasification based power plant (BGBPP) in Chhoto Mollakhali island of Sunderban set up by West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Board under the auspices of the Ministry of Non Convention Energy Sources (MNES), Govt. of India. Four villages of Chhotto Mollakhali Island are benefited with electricity from the power plant, which serves to eight hundred consumers (March 2002) comprising of household, commercial and industrial sectors. The result clearly shows a change in the parameters of domestic life style and business activities due to power supply by BGBPP. In addition the environmental impact of this BGBPP was also estimated in terms of emitted NOx and CO2. It has been found that it has very less environmental impact.

Book Reviews

Book Reviews

Bandyopadhyay, J. and S. Perveen (2003)

Review of International Equity and Global Environmental Politics by Paul G. Harris (Aldershot, Ashgate) 2001 in Progress in Development Studies forthcoming

Abstract:

The core of the book is an analysis of the factors, which has decided the fate of international equity being adopted by US in multilateral environmental agreements and discourses. The author argues that in multilateral negotiations, participation of both the developed and developing countries is an indispensable priority and hence the idea of equity being mooted by a few. However, the author is of the opinion that the fuzzy concept of international equity still acts as a stumbling block in the formulation of many international agreements and treaties. As US saw a change in political actors, with Bush giving way to Clinton, the attitude of the administration changed from one of reluctance to that of acceptance albeit limited in their foreign policy objectives to embrace the concept of equity either on grounds of economic interests or moral positions. The reviewers feel that there exists important gaps in scholarly analyses of global environmental politics and the nebulous concept of international equity, following which the author deserves praise for filling in this void in literature.

Shylajan, C. S. and M. Mandal (2003),

Review of Tourism, Biodiversity and Information by F. di. Castri and V. Balaji (Leiden, Backbuys Publishers) in Journal of Industrial Ecology forthcoming

Abstract:

The book under review is the product of a symposium held in the French island of Port-Cros in the Mediterranean Sea in 2000. Tourism is the largest and rapidly growing economic sector of the post-industrial society. The book is an enquiry on how the benefits of tourism can be attained in a sustainable way with the help of highly expanding sector of information technology (IT) and with the wise use of biodiversity. Many of the chapters of the book discuss how the access to information technology at low cost offers unique ways for promoting tourism in a sustainable way. Authors seek the need for an ecosystem approach, which recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems as a basis for sustainable tourism. Potential impacts of tourism on the ecosystem in general, and biodiversity in particular, need to be clearly understood for making this sector ecologically sustainable.

J. Bandyopadhyay and N. Ghosh (2003)

Review of S. Mahendrarajah, A.J. Jakeman and M. McAleer (Eds) (1999) Modelling Change in Integrated Economic and Environmental Systems in Journal of Industrial Ecology 6(1)

Abstract:

The reviewers have immensely appreciated this publication, which, seemingly, is a wonderful attempt in reporting on the dynamic and significant changes that have been taking place at the cognitive interface between economics and the environment. The volume consists of contributions mainly by the economists, who have been engaged in research at the very challenging interface of environment, economics and various social sciences. While "modelling" of the various environmental phenomena has become a ubiquitous exercise, this volume really provides something very distinctive and interesting. While some articles have been found to be typically abstruse and not really meant for the "non-technical" neophytes, some others have been extremely lucidly written. The reviewers, however, have criticised some of the articles, for their lack of clarity of expression. They have also emphasized the need for the incorporation of case studies in the subsequent editions. Overall, the reviewers feel that this book will open up new dimensions of thought for the "the visionaries and leaders in the subject".

Bandyopadhyay, J. and K. Mukhopadhyay (2002)

Review of P. Soederbaum (2000) Ecological Economics (London, Earthscan) in Journal of Industrial Ecology 5(4)

Abstract:

The core of this book is a critique of what can be called the 'environmental blindness' of neo-classical economics. On the basis of this critique, Soederbaum has tried to construct a methodology for policy making towards sustainable development. The author finds 'environmental economics', the new branch put forward to address the environmental issues by the received paradigm of neo-classical economics, as grossly inadequate for addressing the environmental challenge. As a mechanism for generating a more acceptable economic framework for sustainable development, the author suggests a strongly pluralist approach based on the co-existence of various ideologies In the interest of the ongoing process of environmental sensitisation of the economists, the arguments of the author could become more impressive if he had used a less descriptive and abstract approach in the book, and reflect more on some real-life instances. Nevertheless, these shortcomings do not lessen the crucial importance of the argument in favour of democracy and pluralism that runs through the whole book.

Bandyopadhyay J. (2001)

Review of Shyam Divan and Armin Rozencranz (2001) Environmental Law and Policy in India: Cases, Materials and Statutes (New Delhi: Oxford UP) in Decisions 28(2), December 2001.

Abstract:

The environmental scenario in India is dominated by several vocal activists who are demanding sustainable development. How can sustainable development be achieved and what are the difficulties in that process, thus, constitute an important question. At the ground level, the answer to this question lies to a great extent in the adoption of policies and effective functioning of the regulatory instruments governing development and the environment. The book by Divan and Rosencranz concentrates on these issues in the Indian context and would prove to be an important resource book for the students of law, administrators, industries, environmental activists as well as policy makers in India. The authors present a great number of interesting cases, the reading of which will offer to many environmental NGOs as well as the citizen at large, an idea of how the remedial measures existing in the law, can be utilised effectively to combat environmental destruction and damage. The book is an important piece of scholarly presentation, which would have a wide public utility in India and in comparison to the length of the book.

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2000)

Review of J.V. Sutcliffe and Y.P. Parks, (1999) The Hydrology of the Nile Special Publication No.5, IAHS (Wallingford) in Water International 25 (1).

Abstract:

A high quality scholastic work in hydrology, the book provides an account of the hydrological structure of the Nile river basin. A detailed appraisal of the geographical complexities of the basin helps restore the regional integrity and the interdependence of the various parts of the basin realistically, in the reader's mind. The wealth of hydrological data and information in the publication will prove useful in future hydrological modeling exercises. Designed for water resource engineers and hydrologists, the book however, does not invite a wider readership amongst policy makers and managers.

Bandyopadhyay, J. and B. Mallik (2001)

Review of R. Jefferey and N. Sundar (Eds) (2000) A New Moral Economy for India's Forests?: Discourses of Community and Participation in Review of Development and Change 6(2).

Abstract:

The need for a fundamental overhaul of the institutions for the protection and management of the forests in India has been most clearly expressed through the emergence of the term 'Joint Forest Management' (JFM). Not that a solution has emerged, but in all the official documents of recent origin related to afforestation and forest protection the frequent reference to this new term does not go unnoticed. In A New Moral Economy for India's Forests? the editors, Jeffery and Sundar, present a similar fundamental change in the flavor of literature on the social and institutional dimensions of India's forests. The book makes a much-needed and well-researched contribution to social aspects of forests and forestry in India that provides a comprehensive backdrop to examine the emerging interests in JFM. The book, on the whole, is a very significant professional contribution on the question of forest management in India as a whole. For a change, a book on the forests has been written, not by foresters, but by assorted experts ranging from the Secretary of the Planning Commission to academicians to grassroots activists. This variety is the strength of the book and extends a good amount of credibility to the title of the book.

Bandyopadhyay, J (2004)

Review of Resource-oriented Water Management: Towards Harmonious Coexistence between Man and Nature by Wang Shucheng (Beijing, China WaterPower Press) in Water International (forthcoming)

Abstract:

This book is a compilation of selected lectures and papers by Wang Shucheng, Minister for Water Resources of China. It is destined to go a long way to transmit to the wider world readership, the rapid emergence of a new and interdisciplinary approach to water management in the most populous country in the world, which also faces some typical water related challenges. The ideas of the author as expressed in the book, indicate a clear trend towards widening of the conceptual framework of water management. At the core of the new ideas of Wang is the recognition of the need for liberating the practice of water resource management from the confines of engineering projects and establish clearer and closer links with the social, economic and ecological processes related to water. The need for having a perspective that is informed of the ecological processes occurring in the various parts of a river basin, is exemplified in his approach to the Yellow River basin, for which Wang identifies floods, drying up and ecological degradation as the three major problems. In order that water management can lead to sustainable use of this resource, Wang calls for a clear departure in China from the present project-based approach to, what he calls the resource-oriented approach. The book opens the window to the dynamics of thought and innovation in water management in China.